Data Basics Short Questions and Answers

Data Basics Short Questions and Answers. This post is for the students of Computer ICS Part 2 | Computer Science 2nd Year Chapter No.1 Data Basics, Short Questions, and Answers. Find the most important and more conceptual short questions with their answers on the database for the interviews as well as for the final examinations.

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Chapter No.1: Data Basics

Short Questions & Answers

Q.1: Differentiate between data and information?


Data is a collection of facts, figures, and statistics related to an object whereas the manipulated and processed data is called information.


Q.2: What is a database?


A database is a collection of logically related data sets or files. These files are different in nature, used for specific purposes. It is a computerized system whose overall purpose is to maintain information and to make that information available at any time.


Q.2: What is the manipulation of data?


Manipulation of data to achieve the required objectives and results is called operation. For this purpose, the software is used to process raw data which is converted to meaningful information. Thus, a series of actions are performed on raw data to achieve some output.


Q.3: Write some types of operations that may be performed on data?


Following are some types of operations that may be performed on data:

  • Classifying
  • Calculations
  • Sorting
  • Summarizing


Q.4: What is storing/retrieval?


Data is retained for future reference. Accessing/fetching the stored data and information is the retrieved activity.


Q.5: Define communication and reproduction?


Communication: Data may be transferred from one location or device to another, for further processing.

Reproduction: It is sometimes necessary to copy or to make a duplicate of data. This activity is called Reproduction.


Q.6: What is a field?


A field is a single information of an object consisting of one or more characters i.e., student_id, student_name, and student_class are three fields in a record of the student.


Q.7: What is a record?


A collection of related fields treated as a single unit is called a record. It is also known as tuple or occurrence, such as the following table shows a single record:








Q.8: What is a file?


A collection of related records treated as a single unit is called a file or data set. Files are categorized according to different criteria.


Q.9: Write the names of files regarding usage point of view?


Following are the types of files usage point of view:

  • Master file
  • Transaction file
  • Backup file


Q.10: What are the master files?


Master files are the latest updated files which never become empty, ever since these are created. Whenever the information changes in files, it is updated.


Q.11: What are transaction files?


These are those files in which data prior to the stage of processing is recorded. It may be a temporary file, retained till the master file is updated.


Q.12: What are backup files?


These are again permanent files and their purpose is the protection of vital files of an organization by creating them using some specific software utilities.


Q.13: Write types of files functional point of view?


Following are the types of files regarding functions point of view:

  • Program files
  • Data files


Q.14: What is a file extension?


A file extension is a suffix at the end of a file. It comes after the period and is usually two-four characters long. Normally, the extension is given by the software being used at the time of initial save.


Q.15: What are program files?


These files contain the software instruction i.e., source program files and executable files. The source program files may have the extension as .com and .exe.


Q.16: What are data files?


These are the files that contain data and are created by the software being used. A few of them are given as under:

Word Processor -------- .doc, .docx, .rtf

Spreadsheet ------------ .xls, .xlsx, .wks

Database ---------------- .mdb, .dat, .dbf

ASCII/Text files --------- .txt


Q.17: Write the names of files storage point of view?


Following are the types of files storage point of view:

  • Sequential files
  • Direct or Random files
  • Indexed sequential


Q.18: What are sequential files?


These files are stored or created on the storage medial in the order the records are entered i.e., one after another in the sequence. They require more processing time.


Q.19: What is direct or random files?


These files reside on the storage media according to the address which is calculated against the value of the key field of the record. Random files are record-based files with an internal structure that supports "direct access" by record number. They require less processing time as compared to sequential files.


Q.20: What are indexed files?


The key field of the records is stored separately along with the address of each record. These files can be processed sequentially as well as randomly. They require relatively more space on the storage media but the processing is fast.


Q.21: What are the major components of the database?


Following are the major components of the database:

  • Data
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Personnel


Q.22: Write the objectives of the database?


Following are the objectives of the database:

  • Data integration
  • Data integrity
  • Data interdependence


Q.23: What is data integration?


In a database, information is coordinated from different files and operated on a single file. Logically, the data is centralized, physically data may be located on different devices scattered around over on different locations, connected through data communication links.


Q.24: What is data integrity?


If a data item is contained in more than one file, then all files must be updated if that item is changed. In a database, only one copy of data is kept, therefore, the data is more consistent.


Q.25: What is data interdependence?


If the format of a file is changed then all programs have to be changed. However, a database allows the organization of data to be changed without the need to re-program. It allows programs to be modified without re-organization of data.


Q.26: What is hierarchical?


This model has the general shape or appearance of an organizational chart. A node on the chart, representing a particular entity is subordinate at the next highest level, just as on an organizational chart, an employee reports to only the boss. This structure is referred to as an “inverted Tree” with the topmost referred to as “Root”.


Q.27: What is a network model?


In this model, data is organized more like a graph and is allowed to have more than one parent node.  In this model, data is more related as more relationships are established. This model is used to map many-to-many data relationships.  Networks provide more flexibility than a simple hierarchical system in the data relationships may be maintained.  


Q.28: What is the relational model?


This system consists of a collection of simple files, each of which has no structural or physical connection such as those typically used in hierarchical or network systems. The relationships in this model are based on the data content of the entities involved, not by pointer chains or other types of structural connection techniques.


Q.29: What is DBMS?


Database Management System (DBMS) is used for storing and manipulating the databases. It is an improvement over the traditional file management systems. DBMS is software that controls the overall structure of a database and access to the data itself.


Q.30: What are the objectives of the Database Management System (DBMS)?


Following are the objectives of DBMS:

  • Shareability
  • Availability
  • Evolvability
  • Database integrity


Q.31: What is shareability?


Different people and different processes must be able to use the same actual data virtually at the same time.


Q.32: What is availability?


Both the data and the DBMS which delivers the data must be easily accessible to the users.


Q.33: What is evolvability?


The ability of the DBMS to change in response to growing user needs and advancing technology.


Q.34: What is database integrity?


Since data is shared among multiple users, adequate integrity control measures must be maintained.


Q.35: Write some advantages of database systems?


Following are some advantages/benefits of database systems:

  • Data independence
  • Support complex data relationships
  • Sophisticated data security features
  • Database backup/recovery


Q.36: Write some disadvantages of database systems?


Following are some disadvantages/limitations of database systems:

  • Require additional system overhead
  • Additional training required for training of staff
  • Problems can multiply in selecting the wrong type of database environment
  • Need of data dictionary


Q.37: What is a data dictionary?


A data dictionary contains metadata, which means information about the database. The data dictionary is very important as it contains information such as what is in the database, what is the structure of data, who is allowed to access it, and where is the database physically stored etc.


Q.38: What is SQL?


SQL (Structured Query Language) is used for creating table structures, entering data, and retrieving/updating the selected records, based on the specific criteria and format indicated, with the databases.


Q.39: Write some features of DBMS?


Following are the features of DBMS:

  • Data dictionary
  • Utility programs
  • Query language
  • Report generator
  • Access security
  • Backup and recovery


Q.40: What is meant by "access security"?


By using this facility, the DBA can assign specific access privileges for the users of the databases.


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